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Shoulder anatomy

Anatomy of the Human Shoulder - by Codman - Detailed anatomy of the shoulder with comparative anatomy (fascinating!)



Body is formed by intramembranous ossification

Glenoid has 2 ossification centres. Failure of formation of the inferior centre causes primary glenoid dysplasia. Glenoid has thicker cartilage to the periphery & thin in centre - making it congruent with the humeral head. It has a smaller surface than humeral head, allowing for incr. mobility.

Glenoid is retroverted 7deg. and angled 5deg. superiorly [see Picture]

Acromion has 2 ossification centres. Failure of fusion occurs in 7% of people = os acromiale. Humans & chimpanzees are the only animals with an acromion. An acromion provides a platform for a powerful deltoid but impedes repeated overhead activities (swinging through trees).

Proximal Humerus

Epiphysis has 3 centres of ossification - for head, greater & lesser tuberosities.

The centre of rotation of the head lies medial & posterior to shaft. Head is retroverted 30deg.

Glenohumeral positions

LABRUM Labrum & attachments

fibrocartilagenous circle attaching glenohumeral ligaments.

Divided like a clock face

  • 12 o' clock = attachment of long head of biceps & labrum to supraglenoid tubercle
  • 3 o' clock is always anterior for right & left shoulders.
  • Labrum may be unattached betw. 2 & 3 o'clock = normal variant. (don't confuse with Bankart tear)
  • 3 to 9 o' clock the labrum is firmly attached to glenoid. Detachment here is a Bankart lesion.

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